Indian philosophy

(this page is under construction)

Indian philosophy overview on wikipedia


  1. J. N. Mohanty. Classical Indian Philosophy, Lanham, Md: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002.  (amazon)
  2. Karl Potter (ed).  Encyclopedia of Indian philosophies, Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, 1981.
  3. Karl Potter.  Presuppositions of India’s philosophies, New Delhi, India, Prentice-Hall of India, 1965.
  4. S. Radhakrishnan.  Sourcebook in Indian philosophy.  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967. (amazon)
  5. Bina Gupta.  An introduction to Indian philosophy, New York : Routledge, 2012. (amazon)
  6. Bina Gupta.  CIT consciousness, Delhi ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2003.
  7. Bimal Krishna Matilal. Perception : an essay on classical Indian theories of knowledge, Oxford : Clarendon Press : New York : Oxford University Press, 1986.
  8. Surendranath Dasgupta.  History of Indian Philosophy, Cambridge, The University Press, 1957-62. (5 vols) (free download)
  9. Satischandra Chatterjee and Dhirendra Mohan Datta.  An introduction to Indian philosophy, Calcutta : University of Calcutta, 1944. (google books)
  10. Jadunath Sinha.  History of Indian Philosophy, Calcutta, Sinha Pub. House, 1952-1956. (google books)
  11. M. Hiriyanna.  Outlines of Indian Philosophy.  London, G. Allen & Unwin Ltd, 1951.  (free download)
  12. Arvind Sharma.  Sleep as a State of Consciousness in Advaita Vedanta. State University of New York Press, 2004 (amazon)
  13. George Thibaut.  The Vedanta-Sutras with the Shankara-Bhasya (free at sacred text) [all 3 volumes at Internet Archive :  (free volume 1) (free volume 2) (free volume 3)]
  14. T. M. P. Mahadevan.  Invitation to Indian philosophy, New Delhi : Arnold-Heinemann Publishers (India), 1974.
  15. Eliot Deutsch and J. A. B. van Buitenen.  The Essential Vedanta : A source book of Advaita Vedānta.  World Wisdom, 2004.  (amazon) (google books)


  1. Journal of Indian Philosophy, ISSN 0022-1791 (springer)
  2. International Journal of Hindu Studies (springer)
  3. Philosophy East and West (link)
  4. Indian Philosophical Quarterly, ISSN 0376-415X Department of Philosophy, University of Pune (online)

4 thoughts on “Indian philosophy

  1. Sandeep Post author

    Three conceptions of philosophy in India

    Different conceptions of philosophy prevailed in India at different times. In his review of philosophy in India, K. Satchidananda Murty mentions three specific conceptions

    First, there is the view that philosophy is the rational, critical, and illuminating review of the contents of theology, economics, and political science. This view is technically termed Anvisiki (Anvikshiki) and is seen as establishing the foundation of all action and duty.

    Second, philosophy is seen as a system of ideas comprising epistemology, metaphysics, ethics, and soteriology. The technical Sanskrit name for systems of that sort is Darshana.

    The third approach in India views philosophy as an intuitive network of views regarding humanity, its nature and destiny, Nature, and the Ultimate Reality or God, explicit or implicit in the sayings, songs, hymns, talks, and writings of mystics, sages, and saints; this form may be called popular philosophy.

    (Harold Coward. Derrida and Indian philosophy, New York : State University of New York Press, 1990, p 4)

    Darshana = way of seeing
    Anvikshiki = Anu + Iksha = investigation or critical study

    Origin of term Darshana

    In the history of Indian philosophy the first use of the term darsana has been attributed to Haribhadrasuri, the Jaina philosopher and author of the Sad darsana samuccaya. Nearly 400 years after Haribhadrasuri the term darsana in the current sense was used by Sankaracarya in his commentary on the Brahmasutra.


  2. Sandeep Post author

    Arthur Avalon (John Woodroffe) claims that Shaktism offers a synthesis of the six systems of philosophy in India

    There are (and the doctrine here discussed is an instance of it) common principles and mutual connections existing in and between the different Indian Shastras, notwithstanding individual peculiarities of presentment due to natural variety of intellectual or temperamental standpoint or the purpose in view. Shiva in the Kularnava says that all the Darshanas are parts of His body, and he who severs them severs His limbs. The meaning of this is that the six Darshanas are the Six Minds, and these, as all else, are parts of the Lord’s Body.

    Of these six minds, Nyaya and Vaisheshika teach Yaugika Srishti; Samkhya and Patañjali teach Yaugika Srishti and Parinama Srishti; Mayavada Vedanta teaches Yaugika Srishti, Parinamasrishti according to the empirical method and Vivartta according to the transcendental method. According to the Vivartta of Mayavada, there is no real change but only the appearance of it. According to Shakta-vada, Ultimate Reality does in one aspect really evolve but in another aspect is immutable. Mayavada effects its synthesis by its doctrine of grades of reality, and Shakta-vada by its doctrine of aspects of unity and duality, duality in unity and unity in duality. Ultimate Reality as the Whole is neither merely static nor merely active. It is both. The Natural and the Spiritual are one. In this sense the Shakta system claims to be the synthesis of all other doctrines.

    Arthur Avalon. Shakti and Shakta. chapter 19 (Creation as Explained in the Non-dualist Tantras).

  3. Pingback: Reconciling Samkhya, Vedanta and Tantra | Integral Yoga of Sri Aurobindo & The Mother

  4. Pingback: Ways of navigating this blog | Integral Yoga of Sri Aurobindo & The Mother

Leave a Reply to Sandeep Cancel reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s