(This page is under construction)


I found the following resources useful

  1. Chitrapur Math lessons (“Math” means monastery!)
  2. Madhav Deshpande.  Samskrta-Subodhini: A Sanskrit Primer and the audio version of the same lessons.  Someone has compiled the answers to exercises from the book here.
  3. Acharya Ratnakar Narale.  Sanskrit for English-speaking people
  4. Vaman Apte. Student’s Guide to Sanskrit Composition
  5. Videos on Sanskrit by Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan (These are more suitable for those who know Hindi)
  6. Lessons by the Acharya Institute at IITM(Chennai)
  7. Samskrita Bharati
  8. Learn Sanskrit Online
  9. All India Radio broadcasts in Sanskrit
  10. Sanskrit Resources Aggregrator
  11. Easy Sanskrit course by the Chinmaya foundation
  12. Sanskrit videos and text courses at the Sri Aurobindo Ashram
  13. Links for Sanskrit Studies
  14. Samskrutam
  15. One thousand sentences for Sanskrit conversation (from




  • Arthur MacDonnell.  History of Sanskrit Literature, published 1900 (online)
  • Surendra Dasgupta.  History of Sanskrit Literature (free dowload at internet archive)
  • M. Krishnamachariar.  History of Classical Sanskrit Literature (free download at internet archive)
  • Gaurinath Sastri.  Concise History of Classical Sanskrit Literature.  (google books) (amazon)
  • V.Gopala Iyengar.   A Concise History Of Classical Sanskrit Literature (internet archive)


  1. Catalog of ancient Sanskrit texts (incomplete)



  1. V.S Apte.  The Student’s English-Sanskrit Dictionary. (1893) free download at google books
  2. Arthur MacDonell.  A Sanskrit-English dictionary. (1893) free download at google books

E-books and documents

  1. Scanned books at
  3. Sanskrit texts
  4. Sanskrit documents online


  1. Sudharma daily e-newspaper



Advanced Books

Portals and Institutions


  1. Glossary of Sanskrit Terms in Integral Yoga Literature
  2. Glossary to Record of Yoga
  3. M.P. Pandit.  Glossary of Sanskrit Terms in Sri Aurobindo’s Works
  4. Another Glossary

Some words

  1. Abhasa : illusion
  2. Abhidjna : vast insight
  3. Achintya : inconceivable
  4. Adhisthana : source
  5. Adri : hill
  6. Aham : ‘i’
  7. Ahankara : beginning of subjectivity
  8. Ajnana:
  9. Anupahita : transcendent
  10. Apara: lower
  11. Apas : waters
  12. Arjava : straighforward
  13. Avagraha:
  14. Avaya:
  15. Avyakta : unmanifest
  16. Bhedabheda : difference
  17. Bhuta (bhautika) : matter (material)
  18. Bija : seed
  19. Brahmanda: cosmic egg
  20. Brihad : vast
  21. Budh : to be aware, awake
  22. Chaksu : eyes
  23. Chetana (chit):energy
  24. Chhanda : meter
  25. Dahara :small
  26. Dahika : burning
  27. Darshana : philosophy
  28. Deva (root is div): to shine
  29. Dharana : retention
  30. Dhatu:
  31. Dhi: intellect
  32. Dhvani : inarticulate
  33. Drishti : vision
  34. Durvitam : wrong-going, crooked
  35. Hiranya :golden
  36. Idam : this
  37. Jati : genus
  38. Kala : time
  39. Kalpana : ideation
  40. Karana : causal; creative
  41. Kratu : will
  42. Kshobha : disturbance
  43. Kutastha:
  44. Lakshana : sign
  45. Laya : dissolution
  46. Madhyama:
  47. Malina : coarse
  48. Manyu: the temperament and emotive mind
  49. Mati: the general mentality
  50. Medhavi: one who is a genius ( of quick comprehension )
  51. Moda:  sweet-intoxicating-delight
  52. Mula prakriti : maya, supreme nature
  53. Nada:
  54. Nama :name ; nomen
  55. Nibandha : context
  56. Pada : words
  57. Para: higher
  58. Parinama : transformation
  59. Pashyanti:
  60. Pracheta : whose consciousness is expanded, active
  61. Pradhana, prathama : primal
  62. Prajnana:
  63. Pramana : proof
  64. Pramatra : knower
  65. Prameya : object
  66. Pramoda: more intoxicating delight
  67. Pranava : humming
  68. Pranidhana : attention
  69. Pratyaya : apprehension
  70. Rava : sound, cry, primordial sound
  71. Rayi : delight
  72. Rupa : form
  73. Samjnana:
  74. Samkarsha : sense conact
  75. Samskara : deposit
  76. Sankarsana : contact of forces
  77. Sannikarsa : intercourse
  78. Sanskara : deposit
  79. Skambha : support
  80. Smriti : recall
  81. Smriti : recall
  82. Spanda : motion
  83. Sphota:
  84. Sphutatvam : blossoming
  85. Srishti : creation
  86. Sruti : hear
  87. Sthula: gross
  88. Suksma : subtle
  89. Suvitam : right going
  90. Tanmatra:
  91. Tattva : principle
  92. Turiya : fourth; tertium
  93. Ucchuna : readiness
  94. Udbhava:creation
  95. Unmani : mindless
  96. Unmesha: disclose
  97. Unmukhi:
  98. Upadhi:
  99. Upahita : immanent
  100. Upajaya:awaken
  101. Utkranti:evolution
  102. Vahyatvam : externalization
  103. Vaikhari:
  104. Vak (vach) : speech (Latin vox)
  105. Vakya : sentence
  106. Varna : articulate; letter
  107. Vibhu : all-spreading
  108. Vid :to know
  109. Vijnana:
  110. Vikas:develop
  111. Vikriti : effect
  112. Vimarsa : experience
  113. Vipaschit: one whose consciousness is illumined
  114. Vipra: one who is illumined
  115. Vishaya : object
  116. Vistara:expansion.
  117. Vriddhi:growth
  118. Vrka : wolf, tearer
  119. Vyashti : individual

References for the words above

  1. Arthur Avalon.  Garland of Letters
  2. Jadunath Sinha.  Indian Psychology

abhasa : illusion

abhidjna : insight vast

achintya : inconceivable

adhisthana : source

adri : hill

aham : ‘I’

Ahankara : subjectivity begins


Anupahita : transcendent


apas : waters

arjava : straighforward



Avyakta : unmanifest

bhedabheda : difference

Bhuta : matter; bhautika

Bija : seed


brihad : vast

budh : to be aware, awake

chaksu : eyes

chetana (chit):energy

chhanda : meter

dahara :small

dahika : burning

Darshana : philosophy

deva : root is div; to shine

dharana : retention


Dhi: intellect

Dhvani : inarticulate

Drishti : vision

durvitam : wrong going

hiranya :golden

idam : this

Jati : genus

Kala :

Kalpana : ideation

Karana : causal; creative

kratu : will

Kshobha : disturbance


lakshana : sign

Laya : dissolution


Malina : coarse

manyu: the temperament and emotive mind


mati: the general mentality

Medhavi: One who is a genius ( of quick comprehension )

Moda:  Sweet-intoxicating-delight

mula prakriti : maya, supreme nature


Nama :name ; nomen

nibandha : context

Pada : words


Parinama : transformation


Pracheta :One whose consciousness is expanded, active

Pradhana, prathama : primal


Pramana : proof

Pramatra : knower

Prameya : object

Pramoda: More intoxicating delight

Pranava : humming

pranidhana : attention

Pratyaya : Apprehension

rava : sound, cry, primordial sound

Rayi : Delight

Rupa : form


Samkarsha : sense conact

Samskara : deposit

Sankarsana : contact of forces

sannikarsa : intercourse

Sanskara : deposit

Skambha : support

Smriti : recall

Smriti : Recall

Spanda : motion


sphutatvam : blossoming

Srishti : creation

Sruti : hear


Suskha : subtle

suvitam : right going


Tanmatra ??:

tattva : principle

Turiya : fourth; tertium

ucchuna : readiness


Unmani : mindless




Upahita : immanent



vahyatvam : externalization


Vak (vach) : speech ; vox

Vakya : sentence

Varna : articulate; letter

Vibhu : all-spreading

Vid :to know



Vikriti : effect

vimarsa : experience

vipaschit: One whose consciousness is illumined

Vipra: One who is illumined

Vishaya : object



vrka : wolf, tearer

Vyashti : individual

28 thoughts on “Sanskrit

  1. Sandeep Post author

    Sanskrit is taught in the John Scottus school in Dublin Ireland

    Rutger Kortenhorst is a Sanskrit teacher in John Scottus school in Dublin. He has adopted the technique developed by Narendra of the Sri Aurobindo Ashram. Rutger wrote an email explaining why Sanskrit is taught from an early age in his school.

    “WHY Sanskrit? To answer that we need to look at the qualities of Sanskrit. Sanskrit stands out above all other languages for its beauty of sound, precision in pronunciation and reliability as well as thoroughness in every aspect of its structure. This is why it has never fundamentally changed unlike all other languages. It has had no need to change being the most perfect language of Mankind.
    If we consider Shakespeare’s English, we realize how different and therefore difficult for us his English language was although it is just English from less than 500 years ago. We struggle with the meaning of Shakespeare’s English or that of the King James Bible. Go back a bit further and we don’t have a clue about the English from the time of Chaucer’s ‘Pilgrim’s Progress’ from around 700 AD. We cannot even call this English anymore and now rightly call it Anglo-Saxon. So English hadn’t even been born! All languages keep changing beyond recognition. They change because they are defective. The changes are in fact corruptions. They are born and die after seven or eight hundred years –about the lifetime of a Giant Redwood Tree- because after so much corruption they have no life left in them. Surprisingly there is one language in the world that does not have this short lifespan. Sanskrit is the only exception. It is a never-dying constant. The reason for the constancy in Sanskrit is that it is completely structured and thought out. There is not a word that has been left out in its grammar or etymology, which means every word can be traced back to where it came from originally. This does not mean there is no room for new words either. Just as in English we use older concepts from Greek and Latin to express modern inventions like a television: ‘tele [far] – vision [seeing]’ or ‘compute –er’. Sanskrit in fact specializes in making up compound words from smaller words and parts. The word ‘Sams – krita’ itself means ‘completely – made’.

    So what advantages are there to a fundamentally unchanging language? What is advantageous about an unchanging friend, say? Are they reliable? What happens if you look at a text in Sanskrit from thousands of years ago?

    The exceptional features of Sanskrit have been recognised for a few centuries all over the world, so you will find universities from many countries having a Sanskrit faculty. Whether you go to Hawai, Cambridge or Harvard and even Trinity College Dublin has a seat for Sanskrit –although it is vacant at present. May be one of your children will in time fill this position again?”

    Read more @

    1. V. Arvind

      But classical sanskrit (in use during Kalidasa’s time) is substantiially different from Vedic sanskrit. Probably, after Panini codified the language so rigidly, it became changeless. The question is whether it ever was a widely spoken language in this codified form.

      1. Sandeep Post author

        True, the language was changing before Panini codified it. I have no idea whether it was widely spoken.

        I guess the major advantage of Sanskrit, as Rutger points out on the facebook page given above, is the following:

        “The precision of Sanskrit stems from the unparalleled detail on how the actual sounds of the alphabet are structured and defined. The sounds have a particular place in the mouth, nose and throat that can be defined and will never change. This is why in Sanskrit the letters are called the ‘Indestructibles’ [aksharáni]. Sanskrit is the only language that has consciously laid out its sounds from first principles. So the five mouth-positions for all Indestructibles [letters] are defined and with a few clearly described mental and physical efforts all are systematically planned…

        Sanskrit automatically teaches your child and anybody else studying it to pay FINE attention due to its uncanny precision. When the precision is there the experience is, that it feels uplifting. It makes you happy. It is not difficult even for a beginner to experience this. All you have to do is fine-tune your attention and like music you are drawn in and uplifted….

        By studying Sanskrit, other languages can be learnt more easily; this being the language all others borrow from fractionally. The Sanskrit grammar is reflected in part in Irish or Greek, Latin or English. They all have a part of the complete Sanskrit grammar.”

      2. V. Arvind

        Very interesting. This precise connection between sound and sense in Sanskrit also goes back to the vedic language as explained by Sri Aurobindo in the secret of the veda. He uses this connection to trace the different meanings a word can have in Sanskrit.

      3. Sandeep Post author

        Agree. Words having a common seed-sound bear kindred meanings. The connection is also brought out in Chapter 2 and 3 of Dr Sampadananda Mishra’s book Sanskrit And the Evolution of Human Speech .

        1) First come the seed-sounds or the alphabet (eight vowels and their modifications (four in number); five classes of consonants and the nasals; one quartet of liquids or semivowels; three sibilants; one aspirate;)
        2) which gives rise to the primitive root-group
        3) which in turn give rise to the secondary roots by adding any of the consonant sounds with its necessary or natural modifications) of the already existing root-idea.

        From all of these, emerge the verb roots, nouns, adjectives, adverbs.

  2. Sandeep Post author

    Sanskrit is taught in the Philosophy Day School of New York, which is run for children from nursery to fifth grade.

    The children are introduced to the study of a classical language, Sanskrit, in Kindergarten. Sanskrit is one of the most ancient languages — if not the most ancient — of the family of Indo-European languages, which includes classical Greek and Latin as well as almost all modern European languages. It is an astonishingly ordered and beautiful language, and its study is a brilliant training for the mind, affording unmatchable insight into the very nature of language itself. Its grammar is unrivalled in its comprehensiveness and refinement. Its sounds are pure and have remained unchanged over the ages.
    The structure of the Sanskrit alphabet, which children are introduced to in Kindergarten, is scientifically ordered in its differentiation of mouth positions. The sounds of the alphabet are comprehensive in their range, and considerably broaden the linguistic skills of the children at an early stage. Practice at the beginning is oral, with the Sanskrit script being introduced normally in the first grade. Sanskrit grammar is introduced in the second grade. In many cases, the study of Sanskrit refines the student’s speech and helps in the understanding of the grammatical system of English.

    See their website for more

  3. Sandeep Post author

    Narendra is an inmate of the Sri Aurobindo Ashram who has developed a novel method of teaching Sanskrit

    Narendra says he owes his method to Sri Aurobindo and his companion ‘the Mother’ who inspired him to come up with the course we now follow in Dublin. This is one of the many things ‘the Mother’ said to inspire him: “Teach logically. Your method should be most natural, efficient and stimulating to the mind. It should carry one forward at a great pace. You need not cling there to any past or present manner of teaching.”

    This is how I would summarize the principles for teaching Sanskrit as we carry it out at present:

    1. Language learning is not for academics as everyone learns to speak a language from an early age before they can read and write and know what an academic is. So why insist in teaching Sanskrit academically?

    2. The writing script is not the most fundamental thing to be taught. A language is firstly made of its sounds, words and spoken sentences. [The script we use -though very beautiful- is only a few hundred years old.]

    3. Always go from what is known to what is new.

    4. Understanding works better than memorisation in this Age. Learning by heart should only take up 10 % of the mental work, rather than the 90 % rote learning in Sanskrit up to the recent present.

    5. Don’t teach words and endings in isolation; teach them in the context of a sentence as the sentence is the smallest meaningful unit in language.

    6. Any tedious memory work which cannot be avoided should be taught in a song.

    7. Do not teach grammatical terms. Just as we don’t need to know about the carburettor, when we learn to drive a car.

    8. The course should be finished in two years by an average student according to Narendra. This may be a little optimistic given that we are a little out of the loop not living in India, which is still Sanskrit’s custodian. At present I would say it is going to be a three-year course.

    9. Language learning must be playful. Use drama, song, computer games and other tricks to make learning enjoyable.


    1. Sandeep Post author

      Can Saussure find a foothold? [TNM55]

      sure, but I am still learning. The page is still evolving.

  4. Tusar N. Mohapatra

    [Altered Destinations: Self, Society, and Nation in India By Makarand Paranjape. Chapter 6: The case for Sanskrit as India’s national language
    It was from my friends in the Sri Aurobindo Ashram, …]

    1. Sandeep Post author

      Your cryptic comment is worthy of expansion. The essay by Makarand is online at

      a passage from the chapter.

      In this paper I have tried to argue that the idea of Sanskrit as India’s national language begins to make sense when we distinguish between national language and official language. “Official language” may be used for day to day tasks as well as the activities of the government. Clearly Sanskrit cannot be expected to perform that role at least not in the present circumstances. But if by “national language” is meant a language which is important to national identity, a language that unifies, a language that is a source of pride, a language that defines and contributes to a peoples identity, a language moreover that is neither sectarian nor exclusive to any particular group, then Sanskrit fits the bill. When we consider national to mean the source of ones heritage, then Sanskrit surely qualifies as India’s major if not foremost national language. All Indian languages are our national languages, but this does not mean that Sanskrit should be excluded from this list. On the contrary, though all Indian languages are national languages Sanskrit is national in a very special sense of the word and it is this that I have tried to establish in this paper.

  5. Sandeep Post author

    Vagyoga: Mnemonic Sanskrit Method First lesson by Dr Vagish Shastri


    The Sanskrit grammar is usually taught requiring many laborious hours of pure memorization during 12 years. It frightens many would be enthusiasts. Now Acharya Dr. Vagish Shastri has simplified this arduous task of memorization through a Mnemonic Technique of instruction, making what once was tedious and boring now a delight. This unique invention is from Rigvedic source through Vagyoga Kundalini. The many hours of memorization have been reduced to minimum because this technique simply utilizes the natural production of the sound & language. The Vagyoga Technique is dependent upon understanding the intrinsic logic of the Sanskrit language through principles and law of Sound-vibration indicated in earliest Vedic literature.

  6. Sandeep Post author

    Sanskrit-Lithuanian similarity

    The Lithuanian language has many similarities with Sanskrit

    (Lith. = Lithuanian, Skt. = Sanskrit, Lat. = Latin).

    Lith. and Skt. sūnus (son)
    Lith. and Skt. avis and Lat. ovis (sheep)
    Lith. dūmas and Skt. dhūmas and Lat. fumus (smoke)
    Lith. antras and Skt. antaras (second, the other)
    Lith. vilkas and Skt. vṛkas (wolf)
    Lith. vyras and Lat. vir (a man) and Skt. vīras (man, hero).
    Lith. gentys and Lat. gentes (tribes) and Skt. jánas (genus, race).
    Lith. mėnesis and Lat. mensis and Skt masa (month)
    Lith. dantis and Lat. dentes and Skt dantas (teeth)
    Lith. naktis and Lat. noctes and Skt. naktis (night)
    Lith. sėdime and Lat. sedemus (we sit) and Skt. siedati (sits).


    Fire in English = Ougnis in Lithuanian = Agni in Sanskrit

    Sanskrit scholar Paul Thieme noted the similarity in a proverb ‘God gave teeth, God will also give bread’ which
    In Lithuanian: Dievas davė dantis; Dievas duos ir duonos
    In Latin: Deus dedit dentes; Deus dabit et panem
    In Sanskrit: Devas adadā t datas; Devas dadā t api dhā nā s.

    (from Leonard Frey. Introduction to early English grammar, p 8)

    Numbers in Lithuanian and Sanskrit

    vienas eka : one
    du dva : two
    trys tri : three
    keturi catur : four
    penki pañca : five
    šeši shash : six
    septyni sapta : seven
    aštuoni ashta : eight
    devyni nava : nine
    dešimt dasa : ten

    Lithuanian Gods
    Dievas, the Chief God (whose name was possibly cognate with the Hindu Dyaus and Greek Zeus).
    Aušrinė, the Morning Star, a goddess, a daughter of the God (“dievaitė”). She was the goddess of the morning. Aušrinė has many similarities with Vedic Ushas, the Greek goddess Eos, and the Roman goddess Aurora. Alternatively her name is given as Aušra (“dawn”).
    Laima, goddess of Fate and Luck (Laxmi in Hinduism).
    Perkūnas, the Thunder, a son of God (“dievaitis”) (Parjanya in Hinduism).
    Saulė, the Sun (Surya in Hinduism).
    Ašvieniai, the divine twins who pulled the chariot of the Sun (the Vedic Ashwins or the Greek Dioskouri).


  7. Sandeep Post author

    Videos of children’s stories narrated in Sanskrit with subtitles by BookBox Inc.

    Here is one video

  8. mike

    Apparently welsh is very close to sanskrit:

    “But while today’s local population might not travel far, the language that flourished there in about 4,000BC between the Caspian and Black Seas certainly has.

    It is there that linguistic historians believe the so-called “Indo-European” group of languages first developed among a tribe of nomadic farmers. This common language would eventually spread and give rise to such diverse tongues as Welsh, German and Sanskrit.

    Similarities remain to this day, as shown in the case of “dant”, the Welsh word for tooth, and “danta”, its Sanskrit equivalent.”


    “Regarding a linguistic relationship between Sanskrit nd Gaelic, Dorothea Chaplain comments: “Tri in Welsh, as in Sanskrit, stands for three. Triquetra, the Gaelic name for the trinity, appears to have etymological kinship with the Sanskrit word Trikuta – i.e. ‘having three peaks’. The three peaks of Ben Cruachan, which are visible from the Serpent’s Mound, and those of Eildon, whereon were the enchanted halls of Arthurian fame, remind one of Lanka mentioned in the Ramayana. ‘On the shores of the Southern sea there is a mount name Trikuta. On its brow is a beautiful and broad city built by Vicwakarma, named Lanka’….The language of the Welsh is thought by some to resemble Sanskrit more nearly than that of any other European country. George Borrow maintains that Gaelic possesses more Sanskrit words than Cymric, and that they have more of the Sanskrit character, but in either case both are languages of the Kelts, as far as we know, and why should they have a Sanskrit foundation? The Welsh language is much more like Sanskrit than is Gaelic, owing to the fact that it is pronounced as it is spelt, which Gaelic is not.”

    (Source of the last paragraph is Dorothea Chaplin. Matter, myth, and spirit:
    or, Keltic and Hindu links

  9. Sandeep Post author

    An article on learning Sanskrit by Aatish Taseer

    I had come to Sanskrit in search of roots, but I had not expected to have that need met so directly. I had not expected my wish for a ‘historical sense’ to be answered with linguistic roots.

    Aged twenty-seven or so, when I first began to study Sanskrit as a private student at Oxford, I knew nothing about the shared origins of Indo-European languages. Not only did I not know the example given in my textbook—that the Sanskrit ãrya, the Avestan airya, from which we have the modern name Iran, and the Gaelic Eire, all the way on the Western rim of the Indo-European belt, were all probably cognate—I don’t even think I knew that word, ‘cognate’. It means ‘born together’: co + natus. And natus from gnascor is cognate with the Sanskrit root jan from where we have janma and the Ancient Greek gennaõ, ‘to beget’. Genesis, too.

    Read more@

  10. Darius

    More Lithuanian-Sanskrit similar words.
    agnis (अग्निः) – ugnis, a fire

    ákṣi – akis,an eye

    aśru (अश्रु:) –ašara, a tear
    aśvā (अश्वा) – ašva, kumelė, en. a mare
    duhitar-duktė, a daughter

    javas-javas, corn
    kūrmas (कूर्म:) – kurmis, a mole

    luptas – luptas, skined?

    madhu (मधु) – medus, honey

    mātā –motė, a mother

    mrtis – mirtis, a death

    mišras – mišrus, mixed

    naktis – naktis, a night

    navyas (नव्य:) – naujas, new

    padas-padas, a sole

    ratha (रथ:) – ratas, a wheel

    sanas(सन:) – senas, old

    sakha – šaka, a branch

    sarika – šarka, a magpie

    svapnas (स्वप्न:) – sapnas, a dream

    sravati (स्रवति) – srovena, en. flow

    śvaśuras (श्वशुर:) – šešuras, father in law

    sūnu (सूनु:) – sūnus, a son

    vajus (वायु:) – vėjas, en. a wind,

    Skr, Kas tvam asi? Asmi svapnas tava tamase nakte. Agniṃ dadau te śradi tada viśpatir devas tvam asi.
    Lth. Kas tu esi? Esmi sapnas tavo tamsioje naktyje. Ugnį daviau tau širdy, tada viešpatis dievas tu esi.
    En. literally. Who you are? I am the dream in your dark night. I gave you the fire in your heart so/then you are God.

  11. Darius

    On Wiki. As we know it’s questionable source therefore it would be good if someone having knowledge told if Sanskrit sentence is correct or containing mistakes. I missed one word in English translation. It should be … you are almighty God. Viešpatis main lithuanian meaning is Lord and secondary meaning is Almighty. IMO Lord God can’t go together so I placed almighty instead. Am I right?

  12. Sandeep Post author

    This is a 12 minute documentary on Sanskrit studies at the Seth M.R. Jaipuria School in Lucknow, India. The school’s founder is a follower of Sri Aurobindo and the Mother. The Sanskrit curriculum being used by them was drafted by Sampadananda Mishra, a Sanskrit scholar who lives in Pondicherry


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